Sonification of the Coronavirus Spike Protein (Amino Acid Scale)

This piece is a sonification of the spike protein of the pathogen of COVID-19, 2019-nCoV (protein data bank identifier 6VSB [1]). What you hear is a multi-layered sonification approach featuring both the vibrational spectrum of the entire protein (expressed in sound and rhythmic elements), as well as the sequence and folding of amino acids that compose the virus spike structure [2].


[1] Wrapp et al., “Cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation,” Science, 2020, DOI: 10.1126/science.abb2507

[2] Buehler et al., “A Self-Consistent Sonification Method to Translate Amino Acid Sequences into Musical Compositions and Application in Protein Design Using Artificial Intelligence,” ACS Nano, 2019, DOI: